A review Christos Dordas To cite this version: Christos Dordas. This lack of communication is a limitation to the consideration of soil science in the context of its role as an answer to sustainable economic development in the region (DESA., 2013). This does not only mean to increase food production but also to minimize hunger, poverty and social crises. Soils Support Agriculture MARCH 2015 Importance of Soil to Agriculture Agriculture is one of the most important components of our society. The goal of achieving a sustainable planet, one that will accommodate the basic needs of its present inhabitants while preserving the resources that will enable future generations to flourish, has gained increasing acceptance. The topsoil which is desirable for the growth of plants is eroded because of human activities like making of homes, roads, buildings and city expansions. The sustainability of crop production is of great challenges to soil and crop scientists and of course a task to governments of Sub-Saharan Africa. Agriculture that covered all components of agronomic productions depends fully on soil and its quality (Brady and Weil, 2007). International Symposium on Food Safety and Quality: Applications of Nuclear and Related Techniques, Vienna, Austria, 10-13 November 2014 Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission Abdalah Kileo,Simon L C Mdoe,Alan E Waltar & Iddi S N Mkilaha. Kate Scow is Professor of Soil Science and Microbial Ecology in the Department of Land, Air and Water Resources and Director of the Russell Ranch Sustainable Agriculture Facility that hosts the Century Experiment. Several of the grand challenges facing science today involve being able to better manage our Earth’s soil resources: Feeding 9 Billion people sustainably via intensification of agriculture, preserving our water resources in the face of a changing climate, effectively restoring and rehabilitating damaged ecosystems for future use, and becoming more efficient at the stewardship of nutrients required for all living things. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, Springer Verlag/EDP Sciences/INRA, 2008, 28 (1), pp.33-46. They are particularly useful in converting vast renewable resources from rangeland, pasture, and crop residues or other by-products into food edible for humans. Microorganisms can provide active and passive advantageous impacts on crops by nutrient enhancement and by reducing damages caused by plant pathogens or environmental conditions ( Prasad et al., 2019 ). In addition, plant diseases continue to play a major limiting role in agricultural production. Thus, soil could be refers to as production, promotion and distribution of essential services needed for the sustainable crop production in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Agroforestry (ICRAF) is a centre of science and development excellence that harnesses the benefits of trees for people and the environment. The human populations used these animals for commercial and industrial purposes. It provides suitable conditions for root germination and growth. THE ROLE OF NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. Raw materials for industrial uses: Soil serves as number one source of raw materials to most of Sub-Saharan African economic development. This would undoubtedly help to increase food security and proper energy transformation for the millions rural people living in Sub-Saharan Africa. Many countries depend greatly on these resources for the growth and development of their economy. The wildlife living in different areas of Sub-Saharan Africa stayed well-protected around the vast land of the region. Soil, through agriculture has provided many job opportunities to rural farmers in the region. 3. In recent years the importance of sustainable agriculture has risen to become one of the most important issues in agriculture. The geographical location of these countries is depicted in Fig. Agricultural soil science studies the chemical, physical, biological, and mineralogical composition of soils as they relate to agriculture. Sustainable agriculture is farming in sustainable ways, which means meeting society's present food and textile needs, without compromising the ability for current or future generations to meet their needs. Dev. The most affected countries of the region include; Benin, Cameroon, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Somalia, Sudan and Togo. Similarly, it will not serve as a means to alleviate rural poverty and hunger or even ready to feed the growing population for economic development by 2025 as stressed in FAO (1995) report. This module acquaints you with various aspects of agriculture and the role of fertilizers in agriculture. The fully decomposed materials add organic matter to the soil and enhance soil quality and soil fertility for high and economic crop yield production (Li et al., 2014). Reservoir of natural resources: Soil is the store house of abundant natural resources in the ground: oil, gold, metal, heat, limestone, potash, water etc. In this natural science lab, students examine different soil profiles along a hillside. Therefore, if soil and soil resources are given the considerations they deserved, much can be achieved in Sub-Saharan Africa. The role of science in sustainable agriculture Boru Douthwaite, Impact and Adoption Specialist, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (), Ibadan, NigeriaThe 2000-2001 World Resources Report found that environmental damage, much of it to agricultural land, could have devastating implications for human development and the welfare of all species. (2001) considered soil quality as the capacity of soil to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain and enhance water and air quality and support human health and habitation. This recycling process, also improves environmental quality, water quality and human health conditions by minimizing the risk of mosquito populations as well as beautifying environment and its biological surroundings. This water is useful for an ideal growth of plant roots, animals and microorganisms. Its economic impact has affected many regional developments as it touched the national and international financial budgeting (Warren et al., 2001; Bationo et al., 2006). This could offers an enormous opportunity to diminish hunger and poverty, improves crop production, vegetation quality and biological heritage. There is also some uncertainty regarding the extent to which In October 2014, the Committee on World Food Security (CFS) requested its High Level Panel of Experts for Food Security and Nutrition (HLPE) to prepare a report on sustainable agricultural development for food security and nutrition, including the role of livestock, to be … Google Scholar. ... soil. Nevertheless, it is the aims of the World Economic (WE) and Social Survey (SS), 2013 to make sure that any contribution towards the considerations on sustainable development focus on three important issues, which are: sustainable cities, food security and energy transformation (DESA., 2013). Sustainable agriculture is farming in sustainable ways, which means meeting society's present food and textile needs, without compromising the ability for current or future generations to meet their needs. (2014) critically observed that much time and funds have been lost as a consequence of poor consideration of soil resource information in agricultural research and extension planning and implementation during the last 50 years. Some worked in fadama areas under irrigation system, some in dryland for rainy season cultivations and still many others in forest and through commercial production. They tell us whether the soil has the potential to store enough water to keep plants growing through a drought, to resist a flood, and to provide a right condition of chemical nutrients to plant so that the crops will grow healthy for economic development (Levine, 2001). hal-00886444 Agron. Soil environments support these animals with abundant of feeding materials, drinking water and shelter. Agricultural education programmes give the added advantage of the opportunity to see or know how it is done, that is, the practical aspect of soil analysis, maintenance and improvement of its fertility, the production, preservation and processing aspects of animal and crop sciences… Sustainable agriculture has arisen in response to the main issues of the current agricultural system, such as top soil depletion (Montgomery, 2007), groundwater contamination (Horrigan et al., 2002), deforestation, and the loss of habitat and biodiversity (Tilman et al., 2002). Home for animal interactions: Soil provides numerous important services to animals living in forests, deserts and vegetation areas. Farmers and ranchers produce the food and fiber we use every day. Generally, soil covers many important areas of economic developments: Lands, forest, water bodies, roads, buildings, industries and education. The achievable objective is providing adequate and reliable soil information on how to protect, restore and manage soil resources on agricultural land for high and healthy crop yield, globally. Hence, millions of jobs could be lost without this function of soil-in government or non-governmental sectors. And, it is believed that if this can be achieved scientifically, traditionally, politically and socially, there is a strong backing that soil science will emerge number one contributor in agricultural transformation systems for sustainable economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, the sustainability of crop production in Sub-Saharan Africa must include efficient multifunctional services (Varallyay, 2010), using environment-friendly, energy and materials-saving technology and paying special attention to quality and a socially acceptable rural development, concurrently. In the following sections, I illustrate three stages of participation in the SSM farming CoP based on the interview material: seeking, experimenting and contributing. Consequently, soil science can be considered a key to sustainable crop production for economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The climate has been characterized as semi-arid with an average rainfall equaling 600 mm (more or less) and variations of up to 30 or 40% (FAO., 1995). Microbes associated with plants can be used to overcome problems related to soil salinity, fertility, degradation, and habitat loss. Store house of water supply: Soil store large amount of water between and within the network of pores of various sizes as well as within and around the various horizons of soil profile. The quality of their life is poor and needs urgent sustainable development particularly in the aspect of crop production. And, the agronomists understood that soil is the medium in which plant roots anchor and from which they extract water and nutrients (Ritzema, 1994). Planting a variety of crops can have many benefits, including healthier soil and improved pest control. Environmental laboratory: Soil is an environmental laboratory for research and developments. Figure 2 provides an improve understanding of the common relationship between soil science, crop production, sustainability and economic development. Welcome to my Importance of the Soil In Agriculture post. Sustainable Agriculture. This function of soil has long been recognized in the development of various systems of agriculture, land quality, water quality and types of social, cultural and industrial civilizations. A. Ayantunde, A. J. Duncan, M. T. van Wijk, P. Thorne This will continue to be a long term debates because of the relationship that always exist between sustainable development and other components of human life-economic, social, political and environment (DESA., 2013). Role of nutrients in controlling plant diseases in sustainable agriculture. The most important roles of soil science as an answer to sustainability and renewability of crop production for the economic development of Sub-Saharan African nations are outlined and discussed bellow (Greenland, 1991; Dobrovolskii, 1999; Bouma, 2001; Brady and Weil, 2007; UNCCD., 2011; Usman, 2013). As a result, poor soil quality, declined soil fertility and environmental quality have capitulated decreased in food production and economic profits in the entire African region (FAO., 1995). Soil science is the mainstay of the economic development for the Sub-Saharan African region. Therefore, application of soil science resources information into vast environmental resources available would help to increase crop production, forest management, water quality, animal production and poverty reduction. Leveraging the world’s largest repository of agroforestry science and information, we develop knowledge practices, from farmers’ fields to the global sphere, to ensure food security and environmental sustainability...read more, Transforming lives and landscapes with trees, © 2020 World Agroforestry All rights reserved. . This may support the ideas and notion of soil scientists in respect to the subject entitle ‘the future of soil science’. Soil is the most important economic industry for the millions of people in rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. Since 1994, when the first edition of this Special Reference Brief was compiled, \"sustainability\" has become a more familiar term. Available record shows that by 2025, Africa would be able to feed only 40% of its growing population (FAO., 1995). There are many methods to increase the sustainability of agriculture. Soil science provides support to crop production, raw materials to million industries, water quality for biota, animal and human survival, recycling of abundant dead materials, landscaping for engineering and research purposes, foreign exchange for national income … These five factors are closely related to the role of soil science for increasing agricultural economic developments in the region (Bouma, 2005; UNCCD., 2012). And, also could be part of most effective means for integrating economic, social, political and environmental objectives in reducing poverty and hunger (DFID., 2000). Sustainable agriculture practices. Permaculture is a design system that applies principles that are found in nature to … Understanding about topsoil formation and conservation is then related to sustainable agriculture and carbon sequestration and its importance in mitigating climate change. Sustainable agriculture is knowledge intensive, and so farmers must know about life cycles of pests and disease organisms and their recognition, biological controls, ecological principles, soil life processes, nutrient cycles. Generally, there is significant population increase and demand for food, water and shelter in the entire Sub-Saharan African nations (DESA., 2013). (2011), meeting this demand would means requiring about 175-220 million ha of additional cropland, globally. It also plays a larger role in the health of a watershed or regional eco-system by combating erosion or nutrient pollution in our streams and rivers. Vital roles of soil science for an economic development: Soil and soil functional services are backbone of agricultural economic development in Sub-Saharan, Africa ( Kalpage, 1976; Okigbo, 1991; Hartemink, 2006a). These provided a sound knowledge that soil is vital to people for various economic opportunities. Their cultural background differs with significant variation in languages, religion, norms, values and behaviors. The science of soil has played and continues to plays a key role for the improvements and understanding of soil and its function in the global ecosystem for sustainable economic development. A common philosophy among sustainable agriculture practitioners is that a "healthy" soil is a key component of sustainability; that is, a healthy soil will produce healthy crop plants that have optimum vigor and are less susceptible to pests. James Lind Institute is a pioneer in the field of online training courses in various fields such as clinical development, public health and tropical medicine, pharmaceutical medicine, medical communication and journalism and social and environmental sciences. They live in plant roots and trash, digging and loosening the soil and use it as a nest. (1992). 23, Soil Testing and Plant Analysis in … This work synthesizes the current state of knowledge and highlights the unique challenges to management of soil biodiversity in African agriculture. Soil science: Role, challenges and gaps in future: There have been several developments in the past decades regarding the role and challenges of soil science in future (Hartemink, 2006b). All our food needs good soil to grow in. Scow is also Chair of the International Agricultural Development Graduate Group. Agriculture often places significant pressure on natural resources and the environment. 1 Department of Animal Science, University of ... 10.2527/1996.7461406x Abstract Ruminants have served and will continue to serve a valuable role in sustainable agricultural systems. For it’s only through recognising the importance of science, invention and technology that we can possibly hope to guarantee a truly sustainable future, for Australia, and for … Millions of people are directly or indirectly depend on this function of soil. Hence, the multifunctional sustainable soil management for economic crop production must meet the requirement of soil to be classified and described as ‘soil quality’. Maintaining good soil quality is crucial for the sustainability of agriculture. Importance of the Soil In Agriculture. Therefore, the rational of soil science for the sustainable crop production would undoubtedly provide huge opportunities to Sub-Saharan African’s economic developments (Greenland, 1991; Bouma, 2001; Bekunda, 2006). In saturated soil condition, these pores become accommodated with water, when drained-out of larger pores the soil will become unsaturated, and finally ends in the ground as ground water (Johnson, 1991). Search for other works by this author on: Oxford Academic. Soil science provides reliable and adequate information for economic development through these studies. This study outlined and discussed these functional services of soil science as an answer to sustainability and renewability of crop production for economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, it is regretted that little attention has been given to most of these resources information in the region for economic development. Soil science provides support to crop production, raw materials to million industries, water quality for biota, animal and human survival, recycling of abundant dead materials, landscaping for engineering and research purposes, foreign exchange for national income and accommodation for animal and human interactions. However, the wider benefits of soil biodiversity have been largely ignored by traditional and conventional agriculture in Africa. In recent years the importance of sustainable agriculture has risen to become one of the most important issues in agriculture. Soil is investigated in relation to and as integral part of terrestrial ecosystems but is also recognized as a manageable natural resource. We all know that soil is a key element of agriculture. However, in recent years there has been a remarkable increase in human population in most part of the Sub-Saharan African region. Role of nutrients in controlling plant diseases in sustainable agriculture. It is understood that proper managements of soil-crop relationship could improve soil organic matter, enhance soil quality and soil fertility, sustain and restore water quality and soil biodiversity and potentially reserve the natural identity of soil productivity and soil health for an increase crop production (Simonson, 1991; Doran et al., 1994; Ditzler and Tugel, 2002; Carter et al., 2004). Role of Soil Organic Matter in Maintaining Sustainability of Cropping Systems. (2014) noted that the future of soil science depends on the continent’s distinct characteristics: Its high concentrations of poor farmers using poor agronomic tools to work soils dominated by low inherent fertility in support of national economies. The export services have created many ways of revenue generation to Sub-Saharan African nations. Generally, there are many contradictions regarding the links between sustainability, soil environment and economic development (DFID., 2000). The soil scientists understood that soil is part of earth crust where mineral particles are formed as a result of physical, chemical and biological processes. Soil science, as a subdiscipline of the science and technology of agriculture, has played a modest role in agricultural development in East Africa, particularly in the field of crop production. The sustainable management of this relationship requires a join hands to help obtain adequate soil-crop information that could serve as a guide to the achievement of sustainability and renewability of crop production for economic development in Sub-Saharan African region. There are many views and contributions on the theme. The event was held at the Institute of Rural Economics (IRE) which co-hosted the event together with the Ministry of Agriculture. The Role of Urban Agriculture in a Secure, Healthy, and Sustainable Food System Theresa Nogeire-McRae, Theresa Nogeire-McRae Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Colorado State University . This function of soil is of utmost important to all Sub-Saharan African countries. Over decades of science and practice, several key sustainable farming practices have emerged—for example: Rotating crops and embracing diversity. The understanding of basic soil science is important for many different reasons on the farm. Beneficial soil microbes (BSMs) are identified as suitable candidates that may help in the sustainable management of the environment. The book covers the latest research on biofertilizers, ranging from beneficial fungal, bacterial and algal inoculants; to microbes for bioremediation, wastewater treatment; and recycling of biodegradable municipal, agricultural and industrial waste; as well as biocontrol agents and bio-pesticides. It is quite true that this need will never be achieved if our soils are not been preserve and maintain, properly (UNCCD., 2012). The role of soil testing and plant analysis in sustainable agriculture. There are many resources information generated by soil science in Sub-Saharan Africa (Muir et al., 1957; Moss, 1965; Jones and Wild, 1975; Chartres, 1982; Kundiri et al., 1997; Warren et al., 2001; Ehui and Pender, 2005; Bationo et al., 2006; Usman, 2011; Petersen, 2008; Furian et al., 2011). A bicultural of legume and non-legume can be used with the objective to provide both benefits together [26] . Sustainable agricultural practices are intended to protect the environment, expand the Earth’s natural resource base, and maintain and improve soil fertility. Soils having micro-pores hold water very tightly whereas those soils having larger pores (macro) hold their water loosely (Johnson, 1991). They are particularly useful in converting vast renewable resources from rangeland, pasture, and crop residues or other by-products into food edible for humans. It can be based on an understanding of ecosystem services. The importance of soil research “Soil retains and supplies water and nutrients for plant growth, is a critical transformer in major global nutrient … This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the visual soil assessment (VSA) method by testing it on two soil types and two agricultural management practices (AMP) (organic and integrated) that are considered to protect soil quality. Essentially, soil plays a key role in the entire crop production systems (Zachar, 1982). Fertile soil aids the growth of plants. Soil science integrates scientific principles from physics, biology, and chemistry to elucidate how soils provide these essential services.Soil science provides an understanding of how soil properties relate to and can be managed for optimal agricultural production, forest, range, and wetland management, urban land use, waste disposal and management, and reclamation of drastically disturbed sites, such as mines. 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